This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners - engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers - will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope's software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a "dual beam" platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules - no need to "read it all" to understand a topic Includes
This study presents the comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of SS-316 Stainless steel and SA-2062 alloys welded by TIG and MIG welding processes. Microstructures of base metal and weld metal were studied with SEM and EDAX software. Mechanical properties like tensile strength and micro hardness have also been evaluated. During research work it is investigated that the average tensile strength of weld joint with TIG welding is comparatively less than that of joint with MIG welding. Micro hardness of TIG welding is relatively more than that of MIG welding. The minimum HAZ is found directly proportional to maximum tensile strength. More coarse dimples are seen in TIG joints as compared to MIG joints. The dimple size exhibits a directly proportional relationship with strength and ductility, i.e. if the dimple size is finer, then the strength and ductility of the respective joint will be higher and vice versa. The higher hardness at weld interface may be due to enrichment of this zone with FE, Ni, and Cr and subsequent formation.
The book is aimed primarily at employees in the finance, controlling, planning and IT departments. Likewise to Business experienced IT and Business Consultant.As with most software implementations, implementing or moving to Business Process and Consolidation (BPC), an SAP application for financial planning and consolidation, requires more than just technical know-how. Although the big beneficiaries of the BPC implementation are financial planners, controllers and analysts, the success (or failure) of many other actors is influenced by the implementation of SAP BPC. It should be clear to all involved that BPC can not equate a SEM-BCS system with its professional versatility. This primarily relates to the IFRS-compliant consolidation application in the daily FAST CLOSING PROCESS in legal and management consolidation. In addition, support for the SAP application SEM-BCS is more effective than the limited support / support resources at SAP BPC.In large corporations, a combined application of SEM-BCS with BPC is performed, which is an optimal complement between actual consolidation and planning / budgeting.To what extent in the future in a cloud landscape an effective integration of the components S / 4HANA, BPC, IP and SEM-BCS respectively BOFC successfully designed the FAST CLOSING PROCESS will depend to a great extent on the know-how of the business consultant, IT colleagues, users and SAP support.This book is your comprehensive guide to setting up standard and embedded SAP BPC. Preview Real-Time Consolidation and see how to migrate to SAP BPC 10.1 to stay on the cutting edge of SAP BPC.Application examples show the handling and setting of the following functions-Implement standard and embedded SAP BPC-Set up consolidation: ownership, intercompany eliminations, journal entries.....-Standard and embedded SAP BPC-Reporting-Data loading-Forecasting, planning-Consolidation-SAP HANA-Data Manager-Migration-Real-Time Consolidation
KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT MODEL FOR CONSTRUCTION ORGANIZATION IN NIGERIA. This book is about knowledge management (KM) and knowledge management model from perspective of construction organization of a developing country using Structural Equation Model (SEM). Its principle aims are to provide academia, professionals, researchers and others interested in the construction organization with an improved awareness and understanding of knowledge management model principles and practices using SEM. The book intends to provide guideline on the use of Second Generation Method of Multivariate Analysis on the use of technologies, techniques and strategies for exploiting knowledge in a developing country for the benefit of the projects, individual and organizational workers. AMOS or the Analysis of Moments Structure as one of software developed for analyzing SEM. Researchers could convert their theoretical framework in to AMOS. Graphics for analysis using SEM. Also, with AMOS researcher could validate the measurement model of the latent structures using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). It allows researcher to analyze the structural model for casual, correlational, mediator and moderator effects.
The continued scaling of CMOS transistor requires replacement of the conventional silica gate oxide (SiO2) with a higher dielectric constant (K) gate dielectric to minimize the leakage current and to maintain a high capacitance especially at nano level to escape Quantum Mechanical Tunneling. Among many contenders, La2O3 is believed to be the suitable successor but the lanthanide oxides are known to be hygroscopic, which can affect their dielectric quality. Hence, we present a work on mixing the lanthanum oxide (or lanthana) with a less hygroscopic oxide such as Al2O3 to stabilize the insulator layer. Lanthanum Aluminate (LaAlO3) is much less susceptible to moisture. It also combines the advantages of the high dielectric constant of La2O3 and the chemical and thermal stability of Al2O3. Synthesis of Lanthanum Aluminate nano particles is done by Gelation-Precipitation method and are characterized by XRD, PSA, UV-Vis, TG/DTA, SEM, TEM and LCR-meter. The SiO2, La2O3, LaAlO3 are simulated, the reduction in leakage current of MOSFET using nano Silica, nano Lanthana and nano Lanthanum Aluminate insulator is studied using Quantum Wise-Virtual Nano Lab and Nextnano software tools.
Magnetic nanostructures have attracted increasing attention because of their potential applications in high-density data storage and in sensor technology. An understanding of the fundamental physical properties of these nanostructures is of interest in the study of atomic structures and micromagnetism. This book presents a study on the growth of nickel nanowires in commercially available templates. Electrodeposition was used through the pores of a template to produce nanowire matrices. Dependence of the nanowire growth rate, quality of deposit, growth uniformity, crystal orientations and other physical properties of the nanowire network were studied using various process parameters. Structural properties of the nanowire were characterised using AFM, SEM, EDX and TEM. Magnetic properties of the nanowires were studied using a VSM and MFM. Using OOMMF software magnetic behaviour of the nanowires was simulated and compared with the experimental coercivity values and magnetisation behaviour. The target audience of this book is the postgraduate students and the researchers who would like to study the fabrication and characterisation of magnetic nanowires.
In present study, Light weight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) coated with iron (Fe) oxide has been explored as a green and low cost sorbent to remove Ni (II) from polluted water. Iron Oxide Coated LECA (IOCL) as a new sorbent was examined for its efficiency as Ni (II) sorbent by change the operational parameters, such as contact time, initial pH of the solutions, sorbent dosages and initial Ni (II) concentration in batch systems. Also the adsorption characteristics of Natural LECA (NL) and IOCL were examined trough X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Results revealed that modified sorbent have a rougher surface with holes and cave type opening on the surface, which state high porosity and favorable surface area for adsorption process. The surface area increased due to coating process. The results obtained from Design-Expert software indicate that a IOCL dosage of 5.0 g.L-1, initial solution pH of 6.2 and initial Ni (II) concentration of 50.0 mg.L-1 in contact time of 2 h, has the optimum condition for removal of Ni (II) in domain of experiments.
Loratadine is a non sedative anti-histaminic drug. Its major use is in control of congestion, sneezing, runny nose and itching that a patient suffers with an allergic attack or an infection. It has poor solubility in water. Therefore, the solubility and drug release were enhanced using the solid dispersion technique and fast dissolving tablet were formulated. Solid dispersion prepared using Poloxamer 407, PEG 6000 and urea. The solid dispersion were evaluated for saturation solubility, drug content and in vitro dissolution study and it was characterized using FT-IR, X-RD, SEM and DSC study. The fast dissolving tablets of loratadine was formulated using crospovidone and crosscarmelose sodium by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time and % in vitro drug release. A 32 factorial design was used to study the effect of Loratadine: Poloxamer 407 and crospovidone on disintegration time and % in vitro drug release. The responses were analyzed using ANOVA. The obtained model was validated & optimized formulation was prepared as suggested by the software.
Urea prills are produced in the prilling tower, where a cooling-solidification-cooling process of the prills takes place. The ambient air is used as the cooling stream for this process. A case study of the urea prilling process is chosen due to in hot/humid days, the temperature of the product at the bottom of the prilling tower is hot and cannot be packed directly. In addition, the urea prills form lumps and cakes with each other on the scrubber at the bottom of the prilling tower that affects the quality of the product. A mathematical model based on the particle kinematics,and, heat and mass transfer between the urea prills and the cooling air is developed. This is followed by using a numerical technique with an explicit scheme to solve the model. The model numerical results are validated with Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) observation of urea particles. Moreover,to investigate the effect of the urea prilling tower configuration parameters on the above urea product problems, the hydrodynamic of air flow inside the tower is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation software.