This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners - engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers - will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope's software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a "dual beam" platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules - no need to "read it all" to understand a topic Includes
Loratadine is a non sedative anti-histaminic drug. Its major use is in control of congestion, sneezing, runny nose and itching that a patient suffers with an allergic attack or an infection. It has poor solubility in water. Therefore, the solubility and drug release were enhanced using the solid dispersion technique and fast dissolving tablet were formulated. Solid dispersion prepared using Poloxamer 407, PEG 6000 and urea. The solid dispersion were evaluated for saturation solubility, drug content and in vitro dissolution study and it was characterized using FT-IR, X-RD, SEM and DSC study. The fast dissolving tablets of loratadine was formulated using crospovidone and crosscarmelose sodium by direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated for thickness, hardness, weight variation, friability, disintegration time and % in vitro drug release. A 32 factorial design was used to study the effect of Loratadine: Poloxamer 407 and crospovidone on disintegration time and % in vitro drug release. The responses were analyzed using ANOVA. The obtained model was validated & optimized formulation was prepared as suggested by the software.
The Consolidation Consolidation concept describes the BW model based on the procedure model for the implementation of the SAP SEM BCS software for a globally operating industrial group.The focus of the analysis is the technical implementation of the requirements for mapping the IFRS consolidated financial statements using SAP standard software. SEM-BCS 6.00.This IT design contains the technical specifications of the technical requirements. The application design was divided into the main topics data model, master data, measures, methods, reporting and interfaces. In addition to this main document, there are some technical details in the appendix, as well as the corresponding references.This paper is to be used as a handbook for the SEM-BCS Introduction. The aim of this manual is to introduce the SEM-BCS with its individual steps, starting with the BCS activation from the business content, building up, defining the data model in BW, as well as selecting, defining and customizing the consolidation measures and Display methods by example settings.Likewise, the "initial technical consolidation, balance sheet consolidation, download with data stream and also the technique" purchase price distribution "(PPA) are discussed in detail.
With the development of technology and industries, newer materials such as Tungsten, Molybdenum etc. and various other Super Alloys and Ceramics have been developed which are being widely used in nuclear engineering, aerospace and various other industries because of their hardness, heat resistance qualities and high strength to weight ratio. Machining of these hard materials is very difficult by conventional machining processes. Therefore non-conventional machining processes have been developed for the machining of such type of materials. The Objective of this work is mainly to study the effect of various input parameters like Electrode material, Discharge Current, Gap Voltage, Pulse-On Time, Pulse-Off Time on the various output parameters like MRR, TWR and Surface roughness. In this study, these output parameters are studied by using the Taguchi's Design of Experiments through Minitab software. Using this software, Means and S/N ratios for all the output parameters were calculated. Micro structure was also observed using SEM machine.
This study presents the comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of SS-316 Stainless steel and SA-2062 alloys welded by TIG and MIG welding processes. Microstructures of base metal and weld metal were studied with SEM and EDAX software. Mechanical properties like tensile strength and micro hardness have also been evaluated. During research work it is investigated that the average tensile strength of weld joint with TIG welding is comparatively less than that of joint with MIG welding. Micro hardness of TIG welding is relatively more than that of MIG welding. The minimum HAZ is found directly proportional to maximum tensile strength. More coarse dimples are seen in TIG joints as compared to MIG joints. The dimple size exhibits a directly proportional relationship with strength and ductility, i.e. if the dimple size is finer, then the strength and ductility of the respective joint will be higher and vice versa. The higher hardness at weld interface may be due to enrichment of this zone with FE, Ni, and Cr and subsequent formation.
During the last two decades, structural equation modeling (SEM) has emerged as a powerful multivariate data analysis tool in social science research settings, especially in the fields of sociology, psychology, and education. Although its roots can be traced back to the first half of this century, when Spearman (1904) developed factor analysis and Wright (1934) introduced path analysis, it was not until the 1970s that the works by Karl Joreskog and his associates (e. g. , Joreskog, 1977, Joreskog and Van Thillo, 1973) began to make general SEM techniques accessible to the social and behavioral science research communities. Today, with the development and increasing avail ability of SEM computer programs, SEM has become a well-established and respected data analysis method, incorporating many of the traditional analysis techniques as special cases. State-of-the-art SEM software packages such as LISREL (Joreskog and Sorbom, 1993a,b) and EQS (Bentler, 1993, Bentler and Wu, 1993) handle a variety of ordinary least squares regression designs as well as complex structural equation models involving variables with arbitrary distributions. Unfortunately, many students and researchers hesitate to use SEM methods, perhaps due to the somewhat complex underlying statistical repre sentation and theory. In my opinion, social science students and researchers can benefit greatly from acquiring knowledge and skills in SEM since the methods-applied appropriately-can provide a bridge between the theo retical and empirical aspects of behavioral research.
With progressions in technological advancements, new materials are being developed to meet industrial requirements. One such Nickel based super alloy is Inconel 625. Inconel 625 exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties along with chemical stability at high temperature. Due to extraordinary mechanical, physical and chemical properties, Inconel 625 is exceptionally hard to machine/finish. In this book, magnetic abrasive finishing process has been proposed to finish flat Inconel 625 surfaces. Three different parameters processing time, pole rotational speed and weight percentage of abrasives and their range has been selected. Design expert software has been used to plan experiments. Seventeen experiments were conducted as per experimental plan. The effect of process parameters on output characteristics (Percentage improvement in surface finish and Material removed) has been analyzed. Microscopic analysis and SEM analysis of few work pieces has been also provided to analyze the effect of process parameters.
Urea prills are produced in the prilling tower, where a cooling-solidification-cooling process of the prills takes place. The ambient air is used as the cooling stream for this process. A case study of the urea prilling process is chosen due to in hot/humid days, the temperature of the product at the bottom of the prilling tower is hot and cannot be packed directly. In addition, the urea prills form lumps and cakes with each other on the scrubber at the bottom of the prilling tower that affects the quality of the product. A mathematical model based on the particle kinematics,and, heat and mass transfer between the urea prills and the cooling air is developed. This is followed by using a numerical technique with an explicit scheme to solve the model. The model numerical results are validated with Scanning Electronic Microscope (SEM) observation of urea particles. Moreover,to investigate the effect of the urea prilling tower configuration parameters on the above urea product problems, the hydrodynamic of air flow inside the tower is analyzed using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation software.
Magnetic nanostructures have attracted increasing attention because of their potential applications in high-density data storage and in sensor technology. An understanding of the fundamental physical properties of these nanostructures is of interest in the study of atomic structures and micromagnetism. This book presents a study on the growth of nickel nanowires in commercially available templates. Electrodeposition was used through the pores of a template to produce nanowire matrices. Dependence of the nanowire growth rate, quality of deposit, growth uniformity, crystal orientations and other physical properties of the nanowire network were studied using various process parameters. Structural properties of the nanowire were characterised using AFM, SEM, EDX and TEM. Magnetic properties of the nanowires were studied using a VSM and MFM. Using OOMMF software magnetic behaviour of the nanowires was simulated and compared with the experimental coercivity values and magnetisation behaviour. The target audience of this book is the postgraduate students and the researchers who would like to study the fabrication and characterisation of magnetic nanowires.