This volume contains the papers presented at the 2nd European Semantic Web Conference (ESWC 2005) held in Heraklion, Crete, Greece, from 29th May to 1st June, 2005. The vision of the Semantic Web is to enhance today&#8217;s Web via the exploi- tion of machine-processable metadata. The explicit representation of the sem- tics of data, accompanied with domain theories (ontologies), will enable a web that provides a qualitatively new level of service. It will weave together an - crediblylargenetworkofhumanknowledgeandwillcomplementitwithmachine processability. Various automated services will help the user to achieve goals by accessing and providing information in a machine-understandable form. This process may ultimately create extremely knowledgeable systems with various specialized reasoning services systems. Many technologies and methodologies are being developed within arti?cial intelligence, human language technology, machine learning, databases, software engineering and information systems that can contribute to the realization of this vision. The 2nd Annual European Semantic Web Conference presented the latest results in research and applications of Semantic Web technologies. Following the success of the ?rst edition, ESWC showed a signi?cant increase in participation. With148submissions,thenumberofpapersdoubledthatofthepreviousedition. Each submission was evaluated by at least three reviewers. The selection process resulted in the acceptance of 48 papers for publication and presentation at the conference (an acceptance rate of 32%). Papers did not come only from Europe but also from other continents.
Mais que um tutorial, um livro que ensina tudo o que você precisa sobre o Ruby on Rails 4. Não perca tempo com frameworks arcaicos e burocráticos. O Ruby on Rails, um dos frameworks mais populares do mercado brasileiro e do mundo, é ágil, completo e não fica no seu caminho, ajudando-o a focar no que é importante: o seu negócio. Aprenda como construir uma aplicação do início ao fim, usando todos os benefícios do framework, sem mágica. Você vai aprender como fazer as principais funcionalidades presentes na maioria das aplicações web, como cadastro, autenticação e autorização de usuários, envio de e-mails, buscas, internacionalização e segurança. Tudo isso de maneira profissional, com código manutenível e usando as melhores práticas do desenvolvimento de software. Focado na versão 4 do Rails!
This book provides clear instructions to researchers on how to apply Structural Equation Models (SEMs) for analyzing the inter relationships between observed and latent variables. Basic and Advanced Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling introduces basic and advanced SEMs for analyzing various kinds of complex data, such as ordered and unordered categorical data, multilevel data, mixture data, longitudinal data, highly non-normal data, as well as some of their combinations. In addition, Bayesian semiparametric SEMs to capture the true distribution of explanatory latent variables are introduced, whilst SEM with a nonparametric structural equation to assess unspecified functional relationships among latent variables are also explored. Statistical methodologies are developed using the Bayesian approach giving reliable results for small samples and allowing the use of prior information leading to better statistical results. Estimates of the parameters and model comparison statistics are obtained via powerful Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods in statistical computing. Introduces the Bayesian approach to SEMs, including discussion on the selection of prior distributions, and data augmentation. Demonstrates how to utilize the recent powerful tools in statistical computing including, but not limited to, the Gibbs sampler, the Metropolis-Hasting algorithm, and path sampling for producing various statistical results such as Bayesian estimates and Bayesian model comparison statistics in the analysis of basic and advanced SEMs. Discusses the Bayes factor, Deviance Information Criterion (DIC), and $L_nu$-measure for Bayesian model comparison. Introduces a number of important generalizations of SEMs, including multilevel and mixture SEMs, latent curve models and longitudinal SEMs, semiparametric SEMs and those with various types of discrete data, and nonparametric structural equations. Illustrates how to use the freely available software WinBUGS to produce the results. Provides numerous real examples for illustrating the theoretical concepts and computational procedures that are presented throughout the book. Researchers and advanced level students in statistics, biostatistics, public health, business, education, psychology and social science will benefit from this book.
In this book, authors Tenko Raykov and George A. Marcoulides introduce students to the basics of structural equation modeling (SEM) through a conceptual, nonmathematical approach. For ease of understanding, the few mathematical formulas presented are used in a conceptual or illustrative nature, rather than a computational one. Featuring examples from EQS, LISREL, and Mplus, A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling is an excellent beginner's guide to learning how to set up input files to fit the most commonly used types of structural equation models with these programs. The basic ideas and methods for conducting SEM are independent of any particular software. Highlights of the Second Edition include: . Review of latent change (growth) analysis models at an introductory level . Coverage of the popular Mplus program . Updated examples of LISREL and EQS . A CD that contains all of the text's LISREL, EQS, and Mplus examples. A First Course in Structural Equation Modeling is intended as an introductory book for students and researchers in psychology, education, business, medicine, and other applied social, behavioral, and health sciences with limited or no previous exposure to SEM. A prerequisite of basic statistics through regression analysis is recommended. The book frequently draws parallels between SEM and regression, making this prior knowledge helpful.
The output of this research is framework that informs the adoption of Software as a Service (SaaS) for Small and middle-sized businesses (SMEs). Recent research has shown that there are significant advantages of SaaS when adopted by SMEs. The author investigated SMEs in different sectors on a weighting proposal. This target was 87% in excess of the required minimum of 200 respondents as required by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) which was done using SPSS AMOS focused on modeling, trimming and best fit. However 293 respondents were obtained, which was significantly above the minimum requirement. The findings indicated that the factors that significantly influence the adoption of SaaS by SMEs include: awareness, trust, prior IT experience, relative advantage, triability, ICT knowledge and skills, top level management support and complexity. The researcher was able to recommend firstly, that evaluation of the market is critical for SaaS deployment and finally, that application developers, technological consultants, software vendors, and policy makers that intend to adopt SaaS should consider the extended TOE model developed from this research.
Informationsverarbeitung (IV) hat die organisatorischen und betrieblichen Ab laufe in Wirtschaft und Verwaltung bereits so stark durchdrungen, daB ihr Still stand oder eine Fehlfunktion unmittelbar gravierende Probleme hervorrufen. Zum ordnungsgemiiBen Einsatz der IV gehoren nicht nur funktionierende technische und insbesondere Software-Systeme, sondern auch die verstiindnisvolle Handha bung der IV durch Fiihrungskriifte und Sachbearbeiter, also durch die Anwender, und ihre aktive Obernahme von Verantwortung bei Konzeption und Budgetierung neuer IV-Vorhaben. Dazu brauchen sie ein tragfiihiges Grundwissen iiber die Mog lichkeiten der IV und iiber den Zusammenhang zwischen IV und Organisation. Dieses Grundwissen zu vermitteln, haben wir uns zum Ziel gesetzt. Das Adjektiv 'innovativ' im Titelleitet sich aus zwei Merkmalen her, die in die sem Lexikon besonders beriicksichtigt werden: I. Die IV durchliiuft gerade einen dritten Innovationsschritt. Schritt eins umfaBte in den 60er und 70er Jahren die Einfiihrung zentraler Verfahren auf GroBrechnern und Rechnern der mittleren Datentechnik. Schritt zwei fiihrte in den 80er Jahren zu bildschirmgestiitzten Online-Verfahren und zum Ersatz der klassischen Bild schirme durch integrierte PCs. Der aktuelle dritte Schritt wird sowohl zur organi sationsweiten Integration der IV-gestiitzten Anwendungen in Wirtschaft und Ver waltung fUhren als auch zur Nutzung weltweiter Netze, iiber die man he ute meist als Data Highway oder Datenautobahn spricht. Damit werden auch die privaten Haushalte vernetzt, was sowohl zur privaten Nutzung als auch zur Verstiirkung von Heimarbeit fUhren wird. 1m Zuge dieser Entwicklung werden auch Telefon, PC und Television immer enger zusammenwachsen. 2.
This thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition of a time-honored text provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the field of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) for elemental microanalysis, electron backscatter diffraction analysis (EBSD) for micro-crystallography, and focused ion beams. Students and academic researchers will find the text to be an authoritative and scholarly resource, while SEM operators and a diversity of practitioners &#8212; engineers, technicians, physical and biological scientists, clinicians, and technical managers &#8212; will find that every chapter has been overhauled to meet the more practical needs of the technologist and working professional. In a break with the past, this Fourth Edition de-emphasizes the design and physical operating basis of the instrumentation, including the electron sources, lenses, detectors, etc. In the modern SEM, many of the low level instrument parameters are now controlled and optimized by the microscope&#8217;s software, and user access is restricted. Although the software control system provides efficient and reproducible microscopy and microanalysis, the user must understand the parameter space wherein choices are made to achieve effective and meaningful microscopy, microanalysis, and micro-crystallography. Therefore, special emphasis is placed on beam energy, beam current, electron detector characteristics and controls, and ancillary techniques such as energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). With 13 years between the publication of the third and fourth editions, new coverage reflects the many improvements in the instrument and analysis techniques. The SEM has evolved into a powerful and versatile characterization platform in which morphology, elemental composition, and crystal structure can be evaluated simultaneously. Extension of the SEM into a 'dual beam' platform incorporating both electron and ion columns allows precision modification of the specimen by focused ion beam milling. New coverage in the Fourth Edition includes the increasing use of field emission guns and SEM instruments with high resolution capabilities, variable pressure SEM operation, theory, and measurement of x-rays with high throughput silicon drift detector (SDD-EDS) x-ray spectrometers. In addition to powerful vendor- supplied software to support data collection and processing, the microscopist can access advanced capabilities available in free, open source software platforms, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) ImageJ-Fiji for image processing and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and spectral simulation, both of which are extensively used in this work. However, the user has a responsibility to bring intellect, curiosity, and a proper skepticism to information on a computer screen and to the entire measurement process. This book helps you to achieve this goal. Realigns the text with the needs of a diverse audience from researchers and graduate students to SEM operators and technical managers Emphasizes practical, hands-on operation of the microscope, particularly user selection of the critical operating parameters to achieve meaningful results Provides step-by-step overviews of SEM, EDS, and EBSD and checklists of critical issues for SEM imaging, EDS x-ray microanalysis, and EBSD crystallographic measurements Makes extensive use of open source software: NIH ImageJ-FIJI for image processing and NIST DTSA II for quantitative EDS x-ray microanalysis and EDS spectral simulation. Includes case studies to illustrate practical problem solving Covers Helium ion scanning microscopy Organized into relatively self-contained modules &#8211; no need to 'read it all' to understand a topic Includes an online supplement&#8212;an extensive 'Database of Electron&#8211;Solid Interactions'&#8212;which can be accessed on SpringerLink, in Chapter 3
With progressions in technological advancements, new materials are being developed to meet industrial requirements. One such Nickel based super alloy is Inconel 625. Inconel 625 exhibits extraordinary mechanical properties along with chemical stability at high temperature. Due to extraordinary mechanical, physical and chemical properties, Inconel 625 is exceptionally hard to machine/finish. In this book, magnetic abrasive finishing process has been proposed to finish flat Inconel 625 surfaces. Three different parameters processing time, pole rotational speed and weight percentage of abrasives and their range has been selected. Design expert software has been used to plan experiments. Seventeen experiments were conducted as per experimental plan. The effect of process parameters on output characteristics (Percentage improvement in surface finish and Material removed) has been analyzed. Microscopic analysis and SEM analysis of few work pieces has been also provided to analyze the effect of process parameters.
Puppet é uma ferramenta e plataforma que possibilita gerenciar a configuração de aplicações e serviços. Oferece uma maneira de padronizar a entrega e operação de um software, não importando em qual sistema operacional será executada. Considerando que os papéis do administrador de sistema moderno são agilizar a entrega do software e administrar um crescente ambiente formado por servidores e serviços heterogêneos, este livro apresenta a ferramenta que possibilita outra forma de trabalho, baseada na cultura DevOps. Em vez de criar scripts e ISOs customizadas, o administrador criará uma documentação que é fácil de ler, modificar, além de ser executável. Os capítulos fornecem, de maneira equilibrada, conteúdo teórico e exercícios práticos, de forma que, ao final da leitura do livro, o leitor terá simulado a configuração automatizada de um ambiente formado por sistemas operacionais e serviços de rede comum em muitas empresas. Este livro é indicado para pessoas iniciantes em Puppet, mas que possuem experiência na administração de servidores GNU/Linux e Windows. Você aprenderá a: .A usar a linguagem declarativa em Puppet. .Instalar, configurar e manter o ecossistema Puppet. .Gerenciar servidores, serviços e aplicações com Puppet. .Simular as mudanças de configuração sem realizar alterações. .Desenvolver manisfests, classes e módulos. .Visualizar as mudanças realizadas no ambiente por meio do PuppetBoard. .Versionar a configuração da infraestrutura usando o Git. .Separar os dados de configuração do código usando o Hiera. .Criar templates de configuração.
The main purpose of this research work is to develop the single domain magnetic particles of M-type Barium hexa-ferrite having composition of BaFe12O19 using oxide precursors using conventional powder metallurgy technique. The phase formation and magnetic performance of the powders and magnets will be optimized by adjusting calcination and sintering temperatures. The synthesis of M-Type Barium hexa-ferrite carried out in two sections. A series of four samples have been prepared by initial wet mixed powders calcined at different temperatures i.e. 750, 850, 950 and 1050oC. On the basis of structural analysis the sample calcined at 950oC has been selected and further divided into four parts to sintered them at 1100, 1150, 1200 and 1250oC. These are characterized through Differential Scanning calorimetric (DSC), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Diamond Structure visualization software, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and DC-Magnetometer. The structural measurements depict the confirmation of M-Type Barium Hexa-ferrite structure. SEM micrographs show the hexagonal shaped like grains. The coercivity of the sample sintered at 1250oC has a minimum value.
This book presents reviews, examples and case studies of innovative applications in solid and hazardous waste management. The economics of waste management have since become a significant research area in their own right, and two chapters address these issues. In addition, dedicated chapters cover specific categories of waste such as biomedical and institutional waste, plastics and e-waste. The book subsequently discusses newer analytical methods like SEM, EDX, XRD and optical microscopy, along with selected &#8220;older&#8221; methods for sampling and characterizing different types of waste. The various applications of mathematical tools like linear optimization, various software/models like WISCLeach, and DRASTIC, and tools like remote sensing and GIS are illustrated in many of the chapters. Lastly, since composting is one of the most popular treatment methods for managing the organic component of municipal solid waste, the book provides an overview of composting and the fundamentals of microbiology that are essential to understanding waste-related biological processes. The book was primarily written for students and practitioners in the field who are already familiar with the basics. All chapters were prepared by practicing experts and scholars in the field, and are intended to help readers better understand and apply these principles and practices in their own endeavours. Key topics covered in the book: &#8226; The circular economy and the economics of solid waste management &#8226; Various remote sensing and GIS applications for managing municipal solid waste, coal fires in mines, changes in land use and land cover in industrial areas, etc. &#8226; Treatment and management of different types of solid waste: institutional (including biomedical), residential, e-waste, plastic, and ash from thermal power plants &#8226; Sampling and characterization of municipal waste and compost &#8226; Fundamentals of microbiology &#8226; Overview of environmental regulations, especially those pertaining to solid and hazardous waste management
In present study, Light weight Expanded Clay Aggregate (LECA) coated with iron (Fe) oxide has been explored as a green and low cost sorbent to remove Ni (II) from polluted water. Iron Oxide Coated LECA (IOCL) as a new sorbent was examined for its efficiency as Ni (II) sorbent by change the operational parameters, such as contact time, initial pH of the solutions, sorbent dosages and initial Ni (II) concentration in batch systems. Also the adsorption characteristics of Natural LECA (NL) and IOCL were examined trough X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Results revealed that modified sorbent have a rougher surface with holes and cave type opening on the surface, which state high porosity and favorable surface area for adsorption process. The surface area increased due to coating process. The results obtained from Design-Expert software indicate that a IOCL dosage of 5.0 g.L-1, initial solution pH of 6.2 and initial Ni (II) concentration of 50.0 mg.L-1 in contact time of 2 h, has the optimum condition for removal of Ni (II) in domain of experiments.